Defenses: Closed-system vs, Open-system

A commonality of Amazon, Google, and Facebook is that they began not as defensive structures but as open structures.

The challenge is to remain at the top: fending off all comers consumes too many resources and promotes closed-system paranoia. Instead, create an open platform providing potential for everyone (even if serving them also harms them). Users will cling to the meager benefits, become advocates, and protect your platform for you.

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